NATURE

Water crisis: Facts and solutions

بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ

Water crisis a thing that everyone fears who understands the depth of the subject. Water is an essential resource. Off course that is that’s why we try to find it on other planets. I got the idea of posting it as in my city Delhi there was decrease in water supply for 4-5 days due to water work.

This is not a new thing. In past I have faced water shortage due to different reasons other than it. But whenever I face it, I learn to value it same for other humans as well. Human nature does not change with location, race, group or time. One of the most tragic and famous water crisis is of cape town where people water usage dropped by less than a half in just four years.

If water level goes down this condition could be of many other cities such as Sao Paulo, Melbourne, Jakarta, London, Beijing, Tokyo, Istanbul, Barcelona and Mexican city. By just 20 years estimates say that most of the world would face water crisis. But the question comes in mind if we have so much water than why there is scarcity.

This is due to 97 percent of the water on the planet earth being Ocean water. The next two percent is frozen water. And the last one percent being a fresh water source in which water crisis exists. From that one percent most of it is ground water. And its extraction is not easy at it seems and at the same time.

Pretty much explains the water crisis “water water everywhere but not a drop of drinking” a popular phrase. Ground water depletion can also cause increase in earthquakes as well as soil sinking in etc.

Cases of Water crisis-

These are cases from around the globe to give us a deep insight

Flint, Michigan, USA

Let’s start with Flint water crisis which happened due to water mismanagement to understand how important government role can be in managing natural resources. Flint is city in Michigan that wants to cut the expenses so they stop buying water from Detroit and join a new regional water system. In addition to it started taking water from the flint river causing a disaster.

People started complaining about the water quality it was not even looking clean. Lead in blood was increased harming especially children’s and soon system was set to previous one. Which caused financial losses about 12 million dollars. So here water crisis also contributed to financial crises.

Water crisis of Mexico City, Mexico

In Mexico City people have used a lot of surface water to feed the population. And population grew over time. But now the serious thing came up with use of groundwater. Groundwater in Mexico City is being used at such a level that it threatens the natural environment.

Ground water is a good alternative in the time of water crisis. But not in a daily use at it takes a lot of time to fill it up. It also causes soil to sunk in causing infrastructure loses.

Water problems of California, USA

California is a place where agriculture industry plays an important role contributes to 12% agricultural produce of USA. When California central valley started to work in agricultural industry climate was much wet but now things have changed.

Although California sustained in hard time using its reservoirs but their quality is also now depleting. The chemical by products is contaminating the water making it harmful to average humans.

Amazon, South America

Amazon rainforest is said to be one of the most important part of world environment. Its large trees and vegetation are its marvel. But recent fires and deforestation is settling in now. Atmospheric water generator which are trees contributes to half of its own aqua water acting as ecosystem avoiding water crisis.

Due to deforestation Amazon can turn to savannah like place which would boost the global warming. As dead trees would be decomposed to ground. There is surely a reason why its preservation is so much talked about.

Global water scarcity numbers –

Let’s discuss over water crisis worldwide as it is not in only few locations. At least 70% of world population faces water scarcity over one month a year. And 500 million or 6% of the population faces all around the year. In this water problem poor crisis management contributes with poor distribution, poor management and dirty politics.

Humans have a large population on this planet but households only use about 8 percent of the water the rest is spent by agriculture and industries with agriculture having a lion share of 70 percent of the water approximately. And when it comes to industry not all industries are with a good standard of Corporate social responsibility.

Solutions to water crisis –

There are different solutions to it to minimize scarcity as well as remove it.

  • Improved irrigation system can be a breakthrough as 70 percent of fresh water goes in agriculture so much so that.
  • Cover cropping is also a good thing as regain the potency of the soil which would grow more in lesser water level than an infertile soil.
  • Agro-forestry is also a useful thing in which trees and shrubs are alongside grown with farms can increase earnings and helps environment.
  • Along this we can avoid water pollution and waste water management with proper purification and filtration. A great example is of Windhoek where a waste water treatment plant uses a process that partially mimics nature to turn sewage from Windhoek’s 300,000 residents back into potable water. On the outskirts of Windhoek, the capital of Namibia.
  • Helping in decreasing climate change can also help as if even 2 degree Celsius of temperature changes it would cause water crisis around the world. Both climate change and water problem are connected.
Facts about water usage- Did you know?

1. Two percent of the water is what you see in Coca cola whereas 98 percent goes in ingredients and packaging. From 98 percent 80 percent is in ingredients and 20 percent is in packaging.
2. 74 liters goes into every glass of beer.
3. In coffee about 130 liters.
4. 2,500 liters in each of cotton shirts.
5. Bread about 1,608 liters.
6. Nectarine 140 liters.
7. Banana 160 liters.
8. Cheese 5,060 liters per Kilogram.
9. Hamburger 15000 liters due to meat and meat takes so much water as growing Alfalfa a common cattle feed takes 510 liters per kilogram. And Cattle takes it in kilograms per day.

Note- The Information from in this FAQ is taken from Vox News.

Conclusion –

There is always hope when people start to become aware. The best example is of Cape town. Where people become so worried about day zero that just in 4 years, they reduced their water usage to less than half and got successful in avoiding day zero. Day zero is a day when most of the taps in city would stop.

Gandhi Ji once said “The world has enough for everyone’s needs, but not everyone’s greed”. It is relevant in all times in resource use.


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